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Genomic architecture of adaptive radiation and hybridization in Alpine whitefish

Sampling the radiation

To know the phylogenetic relationships between Alpine whitefish, we carried out whole-genome resequencing on 96 beforehand collected whitefish (with related phenotypic measurements together with normal size and gill-raker counts; collected in accordance with permits issued by the cantons of Zurich (ZH128/15), Bern (BE68/15), and Lucerne (LU04/14); these fish had been beforehand caught inside the context of an evaluation of the Swiss fish fauna, Projet Lac64, and documentation of endemic whitefish species in Switzerland31), along with three beforehand sequenced whitefish (mentioned beneath). Fish had been chosen from lakes Constance, Lucerne, Thun, Brienz, Biel, Neuchâtel, Zurich, and Walen which make up 5 separate lake techniques (Constance, Lucerne, Thun/Brienz, Biel/Neuchâtel, and Walen/Zurich; Fig. 1a and Supplementary Knowledge 1). People from every whitefish species inside every lake, representing the phenotypic variety of Swiss Alpine whitefish, had been sampled, together with three species from Lake Constance, six from Lake Lucerne, six from Lake Thun, and 4 from Lake Brienz, two from Lake Biel, two from Lake Neuchâtel, three in Lake Zurich, and two in Lake Walen. Along with these Swiss whitefish a variety of outgroup people had been additionally sampled, together with two Coregonus albula (European cisco), and a variety of members of the European C. lavaretus species complicated together with two Norwegian C. lavaretus, and 4 samples of North German whitefish considered the closest kinfolk of the Alpine whitefish radiation members: two German C. holsatus (from Lake Drewitz) and two German C. maraenoides (from Lake Schaal).

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